# Contents¶

This notebook covers the basics of creating TransferFunction object, obtaining time and energy resolved responses, plotting them and using IO methods available. Finally, artificial responses are introduced which provide a way for quick testing.

# Setup¶

Set up some useful libraries.

[39]:
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

Import relevant stingray libraries.

[40]:
from stingray.simulator.transfer import TransferFunction
from stingray.simulator.transfer import simple_ir, relativistic_ir

## Creating TransferFunction¶

A transfer function can be initialized by passing a 2-d array containing time across the first dimension and energy across the second. For example, if the 2-d array is defined by arr, then arr[1][5] defines a time of 5 units and energy of 1 unit.

For the purpose of this tutorial, we have stored a 2-d array in a text file named intensity.txt. The script to generate this file is explained in Data Preparation notebook.

[41]:

Initialize transfer function by passing the array defined above.

[42]:
transfer = TransferFunction(response)
transfer.data.shape
[42]:
(524, 744)

By default, time and energy spacing across both axes are set to 1. However, they can be changed by supplying additional parameters dt and de.

## Obtaining Time-Resolved Response¶

The 2-d transfer function can be converted into a time-resolved/energy-averaged response.

[43]:
transfer.time_response()

This sets time parameter which can be accessed by transfer.time

[44]:
transfer.time[1:10]
[44]:
array([ 0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.])

Additionally, energy interval over which to average, can be specified by specifying e0 and e1 parameters.

## Obtaining Energy-Resolved Response¶

Energy-resolved/time-averaged response can be also be formed from 2-d transfer function.

[45]:
transfer.energy_response()

This sets energy parameter which can be accessed by transfer.energy

[46]:
transfer.energy[1:10]
[46]:
array([ 0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.])

## Plotting Responses¶

TransferFunction() creates plots of time-resolved, energy-resolved and 2-d responses. These plots can be saved by setting save parameter.

[47]:
transfer.plot(response='2d')
[48]:
transfer.plot(response='time')
[49]:
transfer.plot(response='energy')

By enabling save=True parameter, the plots can be also saved.

## IO¶

TransferFunction can be saved in pickle format and retrieved later.

[50]:
transfer.write('transfer.pickle')

Saved files can be read using static read() method.

[51]:
transfer_new.time[1:10]
[51]:
array([ 0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  0.])

## Artificial Responses¶

For quick testing, two helper impulse response models are provided.

### 1- Simple IR¶

simple_ir() allows to define an impulse response of constant height. It takes in time resolution starting time, width and intensity as arguments.

[52]:
s_ir = simple_ir(dt=0.125, start=10, width=5, intensity=0.1)
plt.plot(s_ir)
[52]:
[<matplotlib.lines.Line2D at 0x112d48990>]

### 2- Relativistic IR¶

A more realistic impulse response mimicking black hole dynamics can be created using relativistic_ir(). Its arguments are: time_resolution, primary peak time, secondary peak time, end time, primary peak value, secondary peak value, rise slope and decay slope. These paramaters are set to appropriate values by default.

[53]:
r_ir = relativistic_ir(dt=0.125)
plt.plot(r_ir)
[53]:
[<matplotlib.lines.Line2D at 0x10cca92d0>]